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There is little to suggest a compromise is in sight for pandemic relief.

With a potentially disheartening national jobs report coming on Friday and the expiration of a federal protection plan for small businesses looming over the weekend, lawmakers and White House officials ended more than three hours of negotiations on Thursday night still starkly divided over proposals for a new relief package to help the United States through the pandemic recession.

The talks, held in the Capitol Hill offices of Speaker Nancy Pelosi, turned so contentious that Ms. Pelosi said Mark Meadows, the White House chief of staff, had slammed the table at one point, an accusation Mr. Meadows denied.

With little to suggest a compromise was in sight, Steven Mnuchin, the Treasury secretary, said the negotiators were expected to touch base by phone on Friday to determine whether it would be worthwhile to convene in person for more negotiations.

In the morning, the Labor Department will report on how many jobs the economy created in July. Forecasters expect fewer new jobs than in May, when the nascent recovery added 2.7 million jobs, or in June, when it added 4.8 million. That’s because the resurgence of the coronavirus has cooled growth in consumer spending and business activity for much of the summer.

And on Saturday, the federal Paycheck Protection Program is set to end. Since April, the hastily created and chaotically executed program has injected $523 billion into the economy, allowing small-business owners to stay afloat and keep employees on payrolls.

The economy remains down more than 10 million jobs from its pre-pandemic peak in February. New claims for unemployment benefits have exceeded one million a week for 20 straight weeks, the Labor Department reported on Thursday.

If Friday’s report shows a drastic slowdown in job creation, pressure will rise on President Trump and congressional leaders to cut a deal to provide additional aid. A better-than-expected report could sway the president — who has said repeatedly that the economy would rapidly return to its pre-crisis state — against agreeing to Democrats’ demands on issues like extending the now-expired $600-a-week federal supplement for unemployed workers.

Mr. Mnuchin and Mr. Meadows accused the Democrats in Thursday’s meeting — Ms. Pelosi, of California, and Senator Chuck Schumer of New York, the minority leader — of an unwillingness to compromise, while Ms. Pelosi and Mr. Schumer said administration officials continued to push for proposals that did not meet the needs caused by the pandemic.

“We have always said that the Republicans and the president do not understand the gravity of the situation, and every time we meet with them, it is reinforced,” Ms. Pelosi said Thursday evening. “It’s so clear that we should do something and we should do something big, and we should do it in a way that is bipartisan.”

Governments locked down early, but quickly realized that people did not have enough money to stay home and that if they did not ease restrictions, millions would suffer.

The actual one million caseload may have been reached on the continent weeks or even months ago, hidden by extremely low rates of testing for the virus. More than half the confirmed cases are in South Africa, the African country hit hardest by far, and one that has done comparatively extensive testing.

Dr. Caroline Tatua, a senior health coordinator with the International Rescue Committee, said the lack of testing — and therefore reliable data — was hampering countries’ efforts to fight the virus.

“We are hitting a million, but we know that that doesn’t get close to the true picture of what we are really facing,” she said in an interview. “Without knowing the true picture, we’re not sure whether the response we’re mounting is sufficient, or what we should be doing.”

Indicators that the spread of the virus could be more extensive than official figures suggest include increased mortality from respiratory diseases and the high percentage of infected health workers. Most African countries do not have the resources to ramp up testing and need donors’ help, Dr. Tatua said.

Some of the dire predictions made by the World Health Organization — that 190,000 Africans could die of Covid-19 in its first year, and 44 million be infected — have not come to pass, at least in the official numbers.

Many African countries have extensive experience of dealing with outbreaks of infectious disease, but many also have weak health systems that citizens are not accustomed to using, or cannot afford.

“If you want to have a quantum jump in terms of the number of tests done per day, then we definitely need some help from other countries, or the mainland government,” said Leo Poon, head of the division of public health laboratory sciences at the University of Hong Kong.

When it comes to conducting widespread testing, China is in a league of its own. The Chinese government takes pride in its ability to marshal the resources needed for mass testing.

Beijing dispatched seven medical experts to Hong Kong on Sunday to help with testing, Chinese state media reported. Yu Dewen, a health official from the southern province of Guangdong who is in charge of the team, said that even with the help of third-party laboratories, Hong Kong could only process 20,000 to 30,000 tests a day, according to Southern Metropolis Daily, a state-run Chinese newspaper. He said the team’s goal was roughly 200,000 samples a day.

But for some residents, the prospect of more readily available tests was overshadowed by concern that the outreach by Beijing was only the Communist Party’s latest intrusion into their lives.

They found it especially unnerving in the wake of the sweeping national security law that Beijing imposed on June 30 to quash dissent in Hong Kong. Police officers investigating alleged subversion crimes under the new law have been collecting DNA samples from people arrested at protests.

Carrie Lam, Hong Kong’s pro-Beijing leader, announced plans on Friday to roll out free and voluntary tests for every resident with help from the Chinese government in two weeks.

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